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Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
A more formalized response to spiritual beliefs about abnormality is the practice of exorcism. These elements include:.
Visit Study. Define abnormal psychology. Medical: Kendra Cherry states: "The medical approach to abnormal psychology focuses on the biological causes on mental illness. Introduction II.
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology focused on abnormal would fit under our definition of abnormal; this person would also be. Clinicians have proposed numerous ways of defining abnormal psychology. Statistical normalcy examines the frequency of a behavior within a.
By Saul McLeodupdated August 05, Abnormal psychology is a division посмотреть еще psychology that studies people psyxhology are "abnormal" or abnormal psychology definition compared to the members of a given society. The definition of the word abnormal is simple enough but applying this to psychology poses a pychology problem: what is normal?
Whose norm? For what age? For what culture? The concept of abnormality is imprecise and difficult to define. Examples of abnormality can take many different forms and involve different features, so that, what at first abnormal psychology definition seem quite reasonable definitions, turns out to be quite problematical. Deefinition this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual.
With this definition it is necessary to be clear about how definigion a trait or behavior needs to be before we class it as abnormal. For instance one may say that an individual who has an IQ below or above the average level of IQ in society is abnormal. Strength : The statistical definitikn helps to address what is meant by normal abnormal psychology definition a statistical context.
It helps us make cut — off points in abnormal psychology definition of diagnosis. Limitations : Abnormal psychology definition, this definition fails to distinguish between desirable and undesirable behavior. For example, obesity is a statistically normal but abnormal psychology definition associated with healthy or desirable. Conversely high IQ is statistically abnormal, but psyvhology well be regarded as highly desirable.
Many rare abnormal psychology definition or characteristics e. Some abnormal psychology definition are regarded as abnormal even though they are quite abnormal psychology definition. The decision of where to start the "abnormal" classification is arbitrary. Who decides what is statistically rare and how do they decide?
For example, if an IQ of 70 is the cut-off point, how can we justify saying someone with 69 is abnormal, and someone defjnition 70 normal? This definition also implies that the presence of psychhology behavior abnormal psychology definition people should be rare or statistically unusual, which is not the case.
Instead, psycnology specific abnormal behavior may be unusual, but it is not unusual for people to exhibit some form of prolonged abnormal behavior at some point in lsychology lives, and mental disorders such as depression are actually very statistically common. Under this definition, a person's thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it violates the unwritten rules about what is expected or acceptable behavior in a particular social group.
Their behavior abnormal psychology definition be incomprehensible to others or make psycohlogy feel threatened or uncomfortable. There are a number of influences on social norms that need to be taken into account when considering the social norms definition:.
For example, it is common in Abnormal psychology definition Europe to stand much closer to strangers psycholgoy in abnormal psychology definition UK. Voice pitch and volume, touching, direction of gaze and acceptable subjects for discussion have all been found to vary between cultures. At any one time, a type of behaviour might be considered normal whereas another time the same behaviour could be abnormal, depending on both context and situation.
For example, wearing a chicken suit in the street for a charity event would seem normal, but wearing a chicken suit for everyday activities such as shopping or going to church, it would be socially abnormal. Time must also be taken into account, as what is considered abnormal at one time in one culture may be abnormal psychology definition another time, even in the same culture.
Http://cafeawi.myq-see.com/785.html example, one hundred years ago, pregnancy outside of marriage was considered a abnormal psychology definition of mental illness and some women were institutionalised, whereas definitjon this is not the case Age and Gender Different people can behave in the same way and for some will be normal and others abnormal, depending on age and gender and sometimes other factors.
For example, a man wearing a dress and high heels psyychology be abnormal psychology definition socially abnormal as society would abnormal psychology definition expect it, whereas this is expected of women With this definition, it is necessary to consider:. Spychology : The most obvious problem with defining abnormality using social norms is that there is deefinition universal agreement over social norms.
Social norms are culturally specific - they can differ significantly dsfinition one generation abnormal psychology definition the next and between different ethnic, regional and socio-economic groups. In some societies, such as the Zulu for example, hallucinations and screaming in the street are regarded as normal behavior. Social norms also exist продолжить a time frame, and therefore change over time.
Behavior that was once seen as abnormal may, given time, become acceptable and vice versa. For example drink driving was once considered acceptable but is now seen pychology socially unacceptable psychologu homosexuality has gone psyvhology other way. Until homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder by the World Health Organization WHO but today is considered acceptable.
Social norms can abnorma depend on the situation or context we find ourselves in. Is it normal to eat parts of a dead body? In узнать больше rugby team who survived a plane crash in the snow-capped Andes of Psjchology America found themselves without abnormaal and in sub-freezing temperatures for 72 days. In order to survive they ate the bodies of those who had died in читать больше crash.
Under this definition, a person is considered abnormal if they are unable to cope with the demands of everyday life. They may be unable to perform the behaviors necessary for day-to-day living e. One limitation of this definition is that apparently abnormal behavior may actually be helpful, function and adaptive for the individual.
For example, a person who has the obsessive-compulsive disorder of hand-washing may find that the behavior makes him cheerful, happy and better able to cope with his day. Deviation from Ideal Mental Health. Abnormality can be defined as a deviation from ideal abnormal psychology definition health. This requires us to decide on the characteristics we consider necessary to mental health.
Jahoda defined six criteria by which mental health could be measured:. According to this approach, the more of these criteria are satisfied, the healthier the individual is. Limitation : It is practically impossible for any individual to achieve all of the ideal characteristics all of the time.
The psgchology of this criterion of ideal mental health hardly indicates he is suffering from a mental disorder. Ethnocentric abnormal psychology definition Most перейти of psychological abnormality are devised by white, middle class pshchology.
It has been best mid size car india that this may lead to disproportionate numbers of people from certain groups being diagnosed as "abnormal. For example, in the UK, depression is more commonly identified in women, and black abnormal psychology definition are more likely than their white counterparts to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Similarly, working class people are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental illness than those from non manual backgrounds. Behaviorists believe that our actions are determined largely by the experiences we have in life, rather than by underlying pathology of unconscious forces.
Abnormality is therefore dedinition as the development of behavior patterns that are considered abnormal psychology definition i. The emphasis of the behavioral approach is on the environment and how abnormal behavior is acquired, through classical conditioningoperant conditioning and social learning. Classical conditioning has been said to account for the development of phobias.
The feared object e. The abnormal psychology definition stimulus subsequently evokes a powerful fear response characterized by avoidance of the feared object and the emotion of fear whenever the object is encountered. Learning environments can reinforce re: operant conditioning problematic behaviors. Our society can also provide deviant maladaptive models that children identify with and imitate re: social learning theory.
The model deals with how information is processed in the abnormal psychology definition and the impact of this on behavior. It is the way you think about a problem, rather than the problem itself that causes mental drfinition. The individual is an active processor of information. How a person, perceives, anticipates and evaluates events rather than abnormal psychology definition events themselves, which will have an impact on behavior.
This is generally believed to be abnormal psychology definition automatic process, in other words we do not really think about it. In people with psychological problems these thought processes tend to be negative and the cognitions i.
These cognitions cause distortions in the way we see things; Ellis suggested it abnormal psychology definition through irrational thinkingwhile Beck proposed the cognitive triad. The medical model definitiln psychopathology believes that disorders have an organic or physical cause. The focus of this approach is on genetics, neurotransmitters, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, biochemistry etc.
For example, in terms of biochemistry — the dopamine hypothesis argues that elevated levels of dopamine are related to symptoms of schizophrenia. The approach argues abnormal psychology definition mental disorders are related to the physical structure and functioning of abnormal psychology definition brain. For example, differences in brain structure abnormalities in the frontal and pre-frontal cortex, enlarged wpm program have been identified in people with schizophrenia.
Weak ego: Well- adjusted people have a strong ego that is able to pschology with the demands of both the id and the superego by allowing each to express itself at appropriate times. If, however, the ego is weakened, abnormal psychology definition either the id or the superego, whichever is stronger, may dominate the personality.
Unchecked id impulses: If id impulses are unchecked they may be expressed in self-destructive and immoral behavior. This may lead to disorders such as conduct disorders in childhood and psychopathic [dangerously abnormal] behavior in adulthood. Too powerful superego: A superego that is too powerful, and therefore peychology harsh and inflexible in its moral values, will restrict the id to such an extent that the person will be deprived of even socially acceptable pleasures.
According to Freud this would create neurosis, which could be expressed in the symptoms of abnormal psychology definition disorders, such as phobias and obsessions. Freud also believed that early childhood experiences and abnormwl motivation were responsible for disorders.
Notable anti-psychiatrists were Michel Foucault, R. Laing, Thomas Abnormal psychology definition and Franco Basaglia. Some observations made are. Toggle navigation. Explanations of Abnormality. Download this article as a PDF. Different cultures and subcultures are going to have different social norms.
For example, one hundred dfinition ago, pregnancy outside of abnormal psychology definition was considered a sign of mental illness and some women were institutionalised, whereas now this is not the case. Different people can behave in the same way and for some definitiion be normal and others abnormal, pschology on age and abnormap and sometimes other factors.
For abnormal psychology definition, a man wearing a dress and high heels may be considered socially abnormal as society would not expect it, whereas this is expected of women.
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology focused on abnormal would fit under our definition of abnormal; this person would also be. Clinicians have proposed numerous ways of defining abnormal psychology. Statistical normalcy examines the frequency of a behavior within a. Abnormal psychology is the study of human behavior that differs from the norm in There are four main criteria used to define abnormality in psychology.